Cette conférence internationale organisée conjointement par SOGIP et le Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples (Tromsø, Norvège) visait à présenter les enjeux que représentent les questions d’éducation pour les autochtones.
The project SOGIP – Scales of Governance : The UN, the States and Indigenous Peoples (Paris, France) and the Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples (FDCIP) (Tromsø, Norway) have jointly organized an international conference : Education, Learning and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights : What knowledge, skills, and languages for sustainable livelihoods ? that explored the role education plays in Indigenous peoples’ efforts : to achieve political recognition ; to uphold their rights ; to continue to practice their culture and speak their own languages ; to maintain their specialized systems of knowledge and skills and to access economic resources necessary for survival.
Photos by : Irène Bellier, Marion Dupuis, Bjørn Hatteng, Shadi Manasrah
ON THE WAY TO THE CONFERENCE
The first day focused on defining the fundamental issues and questions around indigenous education. The keynote speaker introduced the issue from the global perspective of the global indigenous rights movement. The following three sessions delved deeper into the complex challenges of indigenous education, referring both to cross-cutting global issues and describing specific local cases as illustration.
Marie-Theres Federhofer, vice dean : Opening address
Irène Bellier (SOGIP) and Torjer A. Olsen (FORUM)
Keynote speaker : Jannie Lasimbang, Leader of the Expert Mechanism of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP) Study on Education (Malaysia) : “Education, Learning and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights : Promoting and Protecting Indigenous Learning / Education systems”.
And the sami class at Presvatnet elementary school, Tromsø, Norway
ONLINE REPORT : UN Human Rights Council, Study on lessons learned and challenges to achieve the implementation of the right of indigenous peoples to education : report of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 31 August 2009, A/HRC/12/33
WEBSITE : Expert Mechanism of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (EMRIP) on the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights’s website
VIDEO : interview of Jannie Lasimbang by Shadi Manasrah
VIDEO : interview of Irène Bellier by Shadi Manasrah
Jens Dahl, IWGIA (Denmark)
Luis Enrique Lopez (Peru) : “The Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Education of the Indigenous Population : Rhetoric vs. Reality”
Sheila Aikman, Senior Lecturer in Education and Development, School of International Development, University of East Anglia (UK) : “Challenging the Dominance of ‘Education as Schooling’”
Discussion with audience, Moderator : Jennifer Hays (SOGIP)
ONLINE REPORT : IWGIA, « Indigenous Peoples and Education », Indigenous Affairs 1/2005
SESSION 2 : Indigenous experiences with education, and responses
Kuela Kiema (Botswana) : “Walking on a Tight Educational Rope : Personal Experiences from Meeting the State School system, and Reflections on Bokamoso Educational Trust”
Svein Lund, Editor of Sámi School History, Vol. 1-6 (Norway) : “Education for Sámi People in Four Countries. Some Preliminary Conclusions and Experiences from Attempts to Make a Common Research”
Tatiana Bulgakova, Herzen State Pedagogical University in St. Petersburg (Russia) : “The Role of Boarding Schools in the Transformation of Indigenous Culture in Siberia”
Moderator : Sidsel Saugestad (KURF, UiT)
WEBSITE : Bokamoso Education Trust
WEBSITE : Sami school history project
POWERPOINT : Writing Sami School history – some results and experiences – lecture UiT-02.04.2014
SESSION 3 : How can teaching and learning be redefined ? Knowledge transmission strategies in contemporary indigenous communities
Ellen-Rose Kambel, Director of the Rutu Foundation for Intercultural Multilingual Education (Netherlands / Suriname) : “Resisting the One-Size-Fits-All Model of Learning in Suriname : Empowering the Teachers”
June Oscar and Kim Anderson, Marnininwarntikura Women’s Resource Centre in Fitzroy Crossing (Australia) : “Teaching, Understanding and Connection : Indigenous Education in Australia”
Serena Heckler, UNESCO (France) : “Community Approaches to Indigenous Education : A UNESCO LINKS Project with the Mayangna People of Nicaragua”
Moderator : Rowena Dickins-Morrison (SOGIP)
ONLINE REPORT : UNESCO,Learning and knowing in indigenous societies today, Edited by P. Bates, M. Chiba, S. Kube & D. Nakashima, 2009.
VIDEO : interview of Serena Heckler by Shadi Manasrah
RECEPTION : At Árdna, the Sami cultural building at the UiT Campus
The focus of this day was tp present various models that seek to address the educational problems that indigenous individuals and communities face. There are many different approaches, with different priorities, and many different ‘stakeholders’ (indigenous communities and individuals, local / international NGOs / development organizations, states, donors) involved. The cases presented explored relations between these various actors, and provided examples of how the issues discussed on day one is playing out in various settings. What kind of development cooperation is needed to support indigenous education efforts ?
SESSION 1 : Language issues in indigenous education
Isabelle Leglise and Valelia Muni Toke (France) : “Multilingualism Everywhere : “Linguistic Rights” Nowhere ? Education and Monolingual Ideology in French Guyana, in a comparison with Wallis, South Pacific”
Jacques Vernaudon, Université de la Polynésie Française (France – via SKYPE) : “Teaching Oceanic Languages in New Caledonia and French Polynesia : Political Intentions and Pedagogic Practice”
Biret Anné Bals Baal and Trond Trosterud, University of Tromsø (Norway) : “Creating Successful Second Language Users : Presenting a Different Philosophy”
Moderator : Velina Ninkova (KURF, UiT)
SESSION 2 : Formal education : introducing indigenous friendly education (primary and secondary).
Pedro Moye Noza, Indigenous Confederation of Bolivia (CIDOB) (Bolivia) : “For an Indigenous Education of the Lowlands of Bolivia”.
Jorge Quilaqueo (Chile) : “A Look at the Reality of Formal Education in a Multicultural Mapuche Context in Chile”
Vuokko Hirvonen, Sámi University College / University of Tromsø (Norway) : “Indigenous Friendly Education in Sápmi”
Kajsa Kemi Gjerpe, University of Tromsø (Norway) : “The Representation of Sámi Culture and Language in Norwegian Curricula – from 1939 to 2006″
Moderator : Leslie Cloud (SOGIP)
WEBSITE : Sámi University College
SESSION 3 : Alternative education projects of indigenous communities / peoples
Silvia Macedo, Federal University of Sao Paulo – UNIFESP (Brazil) : “”We Go to School to Know More.” Exploring Indigenous Education Initiatives of the Wajãpi Indians in the Brazilian Amazon”.
Tsemkgao (Fanie) Cwi, Nyae Nyae Village Schools Teacher (Namibia) and Bruce Parcher, NAMAS (Namibia) : “The Nyae Nyae Village Schools – Progress and Challenges for Indigenous Education in Namibia”
Live Bjørge, SAIH (Norway) : “Education for Liberation, SAIH’s Support to Indigenous Peoples’ Education in Latin America”
Moderator : Irene Bellier (SOGIP)
Poster presentation by students on the Master’s of Indigenous Studies program / Computer station with Trond Trosterud
INTERACTIVE MAP : students of the Master’s of Indigenous Studies program and their research subjets
View Master in Indigenous Studies in a larger map
Conference dinner : At Grand Rica Hotel
The focus of this day was on how to move forward, considering the issues presented on the first day, and the practical cases and efforts described on day two. Beginning with a panel on higher education and indigenous peoples, links were made between the broader questions of what education means for indigenous peoples, the practical challenges of addressing indigenous education needs, and broader social, political, environmental, economic and cultural consideration – and what this means for development cooperation with indigenous peoples.
SESSION 1 : ROUNDTABLE – Indigenous peoples and higher education
Asta Mitkijá Balto, Sámi University College (Norway) : “Native Language as Medium in Higher Education – Language and Cultural Revitalization in Hawai’i and Sápmi”
Bjørg Evjen, SESAM, University of Tromsø (Norway) : “Masters of Indigenous Studies, University of Tromsø, Norway”
Alta Blandford, URACCAN – The University of the Autonomous Regions of the Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast (Nicaragua)
Sidsel Saugestad, University of Tromsø (Norway) : “North-South Collaboration with the San Research Centre, University of Botswana”
Moderator : Bjørg Evjen (SESAM, UiT)
WEBSITE : Centre for Sami Studies
SESSION 2 : Perspectives on development cooperation with Indigenous Peoples’ education project
Vidar Wie Østlie, NAMAS (Norway) : “Education for What ? Norwegian Development Assistance and Indigenous Education in Namibia”
Emilie Ørneseidet, SAIH (Norway)
Lorelou Desjardins, Rainforest Foundation (Norway)
Eva Marion Johannessen (Norway)
Moderator : Torjer Olsen (SESAM, UiT)
WEBSITE : Rainforest Foundation Norway
ONLINE REPORT : Eva Marion Johannessen, « Schools in the rainforest-Innovative indigenous education in the Amazon » - Rainforest Foundation Norway 2009
SESSION 3 : Education in the bigger picture : Education for Self Determination
Laura Junka-Aikio (Finland) : “Deconstruction, “Truth”, and the Politics of Postmodernity : Indigenous Education and the Debate on Who is a Sámi in Finland”
Marie Salaün, Université de Nantes (France) : “Postcolonial Education Ideologies and Self-Determination : Is “Indigenous Sovereignty” an Oxymoron”
Karl Kristian Olsen, Head of Department of Education and Research at the Ministry of Education, Culture, Church and Gender Equality (Greenland) : “Reforms in Education in Greenland”
Moderator : Veronica Gonzalez (SOGIP)
Comments on Education and Indigenous Rights
Silje Muotka, Sámi Parliament (Norway) and Torgeir Knag Fylkesnes, Socialist Left Party (Norway)
Moderator : Else Grete Broderstad (Center of Sami Studies U. Tromso)
Wrap up of the conference and concluding remarks
Jennifer Hays (SOGIP), Irène Bellier (SOGIP) and Torjer Olsen (FORUM)
WEBSITE : Samediggi/Sami parliament Norway
CITY OF TROMSO
The Forum for Development Cooperation with Indigenous Peoples is a meeting place for researchers, development workers and Sámi organizations engaged in cooperation with indigenous peoples on a global level. By initiating important debates about policies and practice, the Forum seeks to improve the quality of Norway’s development co-operation with indigenous peoples globally. The Forum has arranged annual conferences since year 2000.
The project SOGIP (Scales of Governance : The UN, the States and Indigenous Peoples), funded by the European Research Council (ERC 249236), conducts a comparative study on the implementation of the Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and other indigenous rights mechanisms in several countries on five continents. The SOGIP workshop series consists of four conferences on various aspects of indigenous rights. The Tromsø meeting will be the third one in this series.
The research group Komparative Urfolksforskning – Research Group on Comparative Indigeneity (KURF) is an interdisciplinary research group at the University of Tromsø whose main goal is to provide a forum for scholars, students, and community members with interest in indigenous peoples to engage in a productive academic dialogue, and share research ideas and findings.